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oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46228
The Set Lockout Time For Failed Password Attempts should be set correctly.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46227
The pam_cracklib module checks the strength of passwords. It performs checks such as making sure a password is not a dictionary word, it is a certain length, contains a mix of characters (e.g. alphabet, numeric, other) and more. The following are definitions of the pam_cracklib.so options. * retr ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46229
The passwords to remember should be set correctly.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46235
The PermitUserEnvironment option allows users to present environment options to the ssh daemon.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46234
Root login via SSH should be disabled (and dependencies are met)

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46237
The su command allows a user to run a command or shell as another user. The program has been superseded by sudo, which allows for more granular control over privileged access. Normally, the su command can be executed by any user. By uncommenting the pam_wheel.so statement in /etc/pam.d/su, the su co ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46236
There are several options available to limit which users and group can access the system via SSH. It is recommended that at least one of the following options be leveraged: AllowUsers The AllowUsers variable gives the system administrator the option of allowing specific users to ssh into the syste ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46231
File permission for '/etc/ssh/sshd_config' is set to appropriate values.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46230
The INFO parameter specifies that record login and logout activity will be logged.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46233
The MaxAuthTries parameter specifies the maximum number of authentication attempts permitted per connection. When the login failure count reaches half the number, error messages will be written to the syslog file detailing the login failure.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46232
The X11Forwarding parameter provides the ability to tunnel X11 traffic through the connection to enable remote graphic connections.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46239
The minimum password age policy should be set appropriately.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46238
The maximum password age policy should meet minimum requirements.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46240
The Set Password Warning Age should be set appropriately.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46246
File permissions for '/etc/group' should be set correctly.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46245
This test makes sure that '/etc/shadow' file permission is setted as appropriate. If the target file or directory has an extended ACL then it will fail the mode check.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46248
The /etc/shadow file contains the one-way cipher text passwords for each user defined in the /etc/passwd file. The command below sets the user and group ownership of the file to root.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46247
The /etc/passwd file contains a list of all the valid userIDs defined in the system, but not the passwords. The command below sets the owner and group of the file to root.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46242
The default umask for all users specified in /etc/login.defs

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46241
The root account is the only system account that should have a login shell.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46244
This test makes sure that '/etc/passwd' has proper permission. If the target file or directory has an extended ACL then it will fail the mode check.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46243
The accounts should be configured to expire automatically following Inactivity accounts.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46249
The /etc/group file contains a list of all the valid groups defined in the system. The command below allows read/write access for root and read access for everyone else.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46251
Normally, auditd will hold 4 logs of maximum log file size before deleting older log files. In high security contexts, the benefits of maintaining a long audit history exceed the cost of storing the audit history. max_log_file_action setting in /etc/audit/auditd.conf is set to at least a certain v ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46250
The auditd daemon can be configured to halt the system when the audit logs are full. In high security contexts, the risk of detecting unauthorized access or nonrepudiation exceeds the benefit of the system's availability. space_left_action, action_mail_acct and admin_space_left_action setting in / ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46257
Monitor login and logout events. The parameters below track changes to files associated with login/logout events. The file /var/log/faillog tracks failed events from login. The file /var/log/lastlog maintain records of the last time a user successfully logged in. The file /var/log/tallylog maintains ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46256
Monitor SELinux mandatory access controls. The parameters below monitor any write access (potential additional, deletion or modification of files in the directory) or attribute changes to the /etc/selinux directory. Changes to files in this directory could indicate that an unauthorized user is atte ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46259
Monitor changes to file permissions, attributes, ownership and group. The parameters in this section track changes for system calls that affect file permissions and attributes. The chmod, fchmod and fchmodat system calls affect the permissions associated with a file. The chown, fchown, fchownat and ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46258
Monitor session initiation events. The parameters in this section track changes to the files associated with session events. The file /var/run/utmp file tracks all currently logged in users. The /var/log/wtmp file tracks logins, logouts, shutdown and reboot events. All audit records will be tagged w ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46253
Capture events where the system date and/or time has been modified. The parameters in this section are set to determine if the adjtimex (tune kernel clock), settimeofday (Set time, using timeval and timezone structures) stime (using seconds since 1/1/1970) or clock_settime (allows for the setting of ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46252
Configure grub or lilo so that processes that are capable of being audited can be audited even if they start up prior to auditd startup. Audit events need to be captured on processes that start up prior to auditd, so that potential malicious activity cannot go undetected.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46255
Record changes to network environment files or system calls. The below parameters monitor the sethostname (set the systems host name) or setdomainname (set the systems domainname) system calls, and write an audit event on system call exit. The other parameters monitor the /etc/issue and /etc/issue.n ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46254
Record events affecting the group, passwd (user IDs), shadow and gshadow (passwords) or /etc/security/opasswd (old passwords, based on remember parameter in the PAM configuration) files. The parameters in this section will watch the files to see if they have been opened for write or have had attribu ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46260
Monitor for unsuccessful attempts to access files. The parameters below are associated with system calls that control creation (creat), opening (open, openat) and truncation (truncate, ftruncate) of files. An audit log record will only be written if the user is a nonprivileged user (auid > = 500), i ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46262
Monitor the use of system calls associated with the deletion or renaming of files and file attributes. This configuration statement sets up monitoring for the unlink (remove a file), unlinkat (remove a file attribute), rename (rename a file) and renameat (rename a file attribute) system calls and ta ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46261
Monitor the use of the mount system call. The mount (and umount) system call controls the mounting and unmounting of file systems. The parameters below configure the system to create an audit record when the mount system call is used by a non-privileged user. It is highly unusual for a non privileg ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46268
The prelinking feature changes binaries in an attempt to decrease their startup time.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46267
By default, rsyslog does not listen for log messages coming in from remote systems. The ModLoad tells rsyslog to load the imtcp.so module so it can listen over a network via TCP. The InputTCPServerRun option instructs rsyslogd to listen on the specified TCP port. The guidance in the section ensures ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46269
The Network Information Service (NIS), formerly known as Yellow Pages, is a client-server directory service protocol used to distribute system configuration files.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46264
Monitor the sudo log file. If the system has been properly configured to disable the use of the su command and force all administrators to have to log in first and then use sudo to execute privileged commands, then all administrator commands will be logged to /var/log/sudo.log. Any time a command is ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46263
Monitor scope changes for system administrations. If the system has been properly configured to force system administrators to log in as themselves first and then use the sudo command to execute privileged commands, it is possible to monitor changes in scope. The file /etc/sudoers will be written t ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46266
Set system audit so that audit rules cannot be modified with auditctl. Setting the flag "-e 2" forces audit to be put in immutable mode. Audit changes can only be made on system reboot. In immutable mode, unauthorized users cannot execute changes to the audit system to potentially hide malicious ac ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46265
Monitor the loading and unloading of kernel modules. The programs insmod (install a kernel module), rmmod (remove a kernel module), and modprobe (a more sophisticated program to load and unload modules, as well as some other features) control loading and unloading of modules. The init_module (load a ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46202
The kernel runtime parameter "net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses" should be set to "1".

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46201
The kernel runtime parameter "net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts" should be set to "1".

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46204
The kernel runtime parameter "net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies" should be set to "1".

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46203
The kernel runtime parameter "net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter" should be set to "1".

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46200
The kernel runtime parameter "net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians" should be set to "1".

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46209
File permission for '/etc/hosts.deny' is set to appropriate values.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46206
The kernel runtime parameter "net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_redirects" should be set to "0".

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46205
The kernel runtime parameter "net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra" should be set to "0".

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46208
The /etc/hosts.allow file contains networking information that is used by many applications and therefore must be readable for these applications to operate.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46207
Global IPv6 initialization should be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46213
The kernel module tipc should be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46212
The kernel module rds should be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46215
Once the rsyslog package is installed it needs to be activated. If the rsyslog service is not activated the system will not have a syslog service running

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46214
max_log_file setting in /etc/audit/auditd.conf is set to at least a certain value

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46211
The kernel module sctp should be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46210
The kernel module dccp should be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46217
Implement periodic file checking, in compliance with site policy.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46216
Syslog logs should be sent to a remote loghost

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46219
The cron daemon is used to execute batch jobs on the system.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46218
The logrotate (syslog rotater) service should be enabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46224
Access permission for '/etc/cron.monthly' is set to appropriate values.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46223
The /etc/cron.weekly directory contains system cron jobs that need to run on a weekly basis. The files in this directory cannot be manipulated by the crontab command, but are instead edited by system administrators using a text editor. The commands below restrict read/write and search access to user ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46226
Configure /etc/cron.allow and /etc/at.allow to allow specific users to use these services. If /etc/cron.allow or /etc/at.allow do not exist, then /etc/at.deny and /etc/cron.deny are checked. Any user not specifically defined in those files is allowed to use at and cron. By removing the files, only u ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46225
Access permission for '/etc/cron.d' is set to appropriate values.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46220
The /etc/crontab file is used by cron to control its own jobs. The commands in this item make sure that root is the user and group owner of the file and that only the owner can access the file.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46222
The /etc/cron.daily directory contains system cron jobs that need to run on a daily basis. The files in this directory cannot be manipulated by the crontab command, but are instead edited by system administrators using a text editor. The commands below restrict read/write and search access to user a ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46221
This directory contains system cron jobs that need to run on an hourly basis. The files in this directory cannot be manipulated by the crontab command, but are instead edited by system administrators using a text editor. The commands below restrict read/write and search access to user and group root ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46194
The rsyncd service can be used to synchronize files between systems over network links.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46193
Mail Transfer Agents (MTA), such as sendmail and Postfix, are used to listen for incoming mail and transfer the messages to the appropriate user or mail server. If the system is not intended to be a mail server, it is recommended that the MTA be configured to only process local mail.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46196
The kernel runtime parameter "net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects" should be set to "0".

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46195
The kernel runtime parameter "net.ipv4.ip_forward" should be set to "0".

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46190
The Samba daemon allows system administrators to configure their Linux systems to share file systems and directories with Windows desktops. Samba will advertise the file systems and directories via the Small Message Block (SMB) protocol. Windows desktop users will be able to mount these directories ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46192
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) server is used to listen for SNMP commands from an SNMP management system, execute the commands or collect the information and then send results back to the requesting system.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46191
Squid is a standard proxy server used in many distributions and environments.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46198
The kernel runtime parameter "net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects" should be set to "0".

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46197
The Kernel Parameter for Accepting Source-Routed Packets By Default should be enabled or disabled as appropriate. The kernel runtime parameter "net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route" should be set to "0".

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46199
The kernel runtime parameter "net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects" should be set to "0".

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46271
The talk software makes it possible for users to send and receive messages across systems through a terminal session.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46270
The rsh package contains the client commands for the rsh services.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46273
The DPKG package 'xserver-xorg-core' should be removed.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46272
The telnet service should be enabled or disabled as appropriate.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46279
Only SSH protocol version 2 connections should be permitted.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46278
The DPKG package 'aide' should be installed.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46275
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) was introduced as a replacement for NIS/YP. It is a service that provides a method for looking up information from a central database.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46274
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is designed to synchronize system clocks across a variety of systems and use a source that is highly accurate. More information on NTP can be found at http://www.ntp.org. NTP can be configured to be a client and/or a server.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46277
The DPKG package 'rsyslog' should be installed.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46276
TCP Wrappers provides a simple access list and standardized logging method for services capable of supporting it. In the past, services that were called from inetd and xinetd supported the use of tcp wrappers. As inetd and xinetd have been falling in disuse, any service that can support tcp wrappers ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46282
Remote connections (SSH) from accounts with empty passwords should be disabled (and dependencies are met).

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46281
SSH's cryptographic host-based authentication is more secure than .rhosts authentication. However, it is not recommended that hosts unilaterally trust one another, even within an organization.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46163
The kernel module cramfs should be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46284
The Banner parameter specifies a file whose contents must be sent to the remote user before authentication is permitted. By default, no banner is displayed.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46162
IPtables is an application that allows a system administrator to configure the IPv4 tables, chains and rules provided by the Linux kernel firewall. ufw was developed to ease IPtables firewall configuration.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46283
The two options ClientAliveInterval and ClientAliveCountMax control the timeout of ssh sessions. When the ClientAliveInterval variable is set, ssh sessions that have no activity for the specified length of time are terminated. When the ClientAliveCountMax variable is set, sshd will send client alive ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46280
Emulation of the rsh command through the ssh server should be disabled (and dependencies are met)

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46169
The kernel module udf should be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46168
The squashfs Kernel Module should be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46286
Install and turn on the auditd daemon to record system events. The capturing of system events provides system administrators with information to allow them to determine if unauthorized access to their system is occurring

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46165
The kernel module jffs2 should be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46164
The kernel module freevxfs should be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46285
The file /etc/securetty contains a list of valid terminals that may be logged in directly as root.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46167
The kernel module hfsplus should be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46166
The kernel module hfs should be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46172
The grub boot loader should have password protection enabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46171
The grub configuration file contains information on boot settings and passwords for unlocking boot options. The grub configuration is usually grub.cfg stored in /boot/grub.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46174
The kernel runtime parameter "kernel.randomize_va_space" should be set to "2".

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46173
Core dumps for all users should be disabled

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46170
The system's default desktop environment, GNOME, will mount devices and removable media (such as DVDs, CDs and USB flash drives) whenever they are inserted into the system. Disable automount and autorun within GNOME.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46179
chargen is a network service that responds with 0 to 512 ASCII characters for each connection it receives. This service is intended for debugging and testing purposes. It is recommended that this service be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46176
The talk software makes it possible for users to send and receive messages across systems through a terminal session. The talk client (allows initiate of talk sessions) is installed by default.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46175
The Berkeley rsh-server (rsh, rlogin, rcp) package contains legacy services that exchange credentials in clear-text.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46178
The eXtended InterNET Daemon ( xinetd ) is an open source super daemon that replaced the original inetd daemon. The xinetd daemon listens for well known services and dispatches the appropriate daemon to properly respond to service requests.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46177
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a simple file transfer protocol, typically used to automatically transfer configuration or boot machines from a boot server. The packages tftp and atftp are both used to define and support a TFTP server.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46183
time is a network service that responds with the server's current date and time as a 32 bit integer. This service is intended for debugging and testing purposes. It is recommended that this service be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46182
discard is a network service that responds to clients with the data sent to it by the client. This service is intended for debugging and testing purposes. It is recommended that this service be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46185
The Common Unix Print System (CUPS) provides the ability to print to both local and network printers. A system running CUPS can also accept print jobs from remote systems and print them to local printers. It also provides a web based remote administration capability.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46184
Avahi is a free zeroconf implementation, including a system for multicast DNS/DNS-SD service discovery. Avahi allows programs to publish and discover services and hosts running on a local network with no specific configuration. For example, a user can plug a computer into a network and Avahi automat ...

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46181
echo is a network service that responds to clients with the data sent to it by the client. This service is intended for debugging and testing purposes. It is recommended that this service be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46180
daytime is a network service that responds with the server's current date and time. This service is intended for debugging and testing purposes. It is recommended that this service be disabled.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46187
The Network File System (NFS) is one of the first and most widely distributed file systems in the UNIX environment. It provides the ability for systems to mount file systems of other servers through the network.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46186
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a service that allows machines to be dynamically assigned IP addresses.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46189
Dovecot is an open source IMAP and POP3 server for Linux based systems.

oval:org.secpod.oval:def:46188
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) provides networked computers with the ability to transfer files.

CPE    1
cpe:/o:ubuntu:ubuntu_linux:16.04
CCE    125
CCE-91992-8
CCE-91928-2
CCE-91905-0
CCE-91920-9
...
*XCCDF
xccdf_org.secpod_benchmark_general_Ubuntu_16_04

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