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The permissions on a file establish which users and groups are permitted to access or modify it. An attacker may attempt to change the permissions on a file to prevent legitimate users from accessing it or to grant additional access to an account the attacker controls. Auditing successful and unsuccessful attempts to modify security objects such as file permissions mitigates this risk.

Frequently, an attacker that successfully gains access to a system has only gained access to an account with limited privileges, such as a guest account or a service account. The attacker must attempt to change to another user account with normal or elevated privileges in order to proceed. Auditing successful and unsuccessful attempts to elevate privileges mitigates this risk.

Without the capability to generate audit records, it would be difficult to establish, correlate, and investigate the events relating to an incident, or identify those responsible for one. DoD has defined the list of events for which the operating system will provide an audit record generation capability as the following: (i) Successful and unsuccessful attempts to access, modify, or delete privile ...

An attacker might attempt to log in as an authorized user, through stolen credentials, unpatched exploits, or brute force attempts to guess a valid username and password. If a user is attempting to log in to a system at an unusual time, or if there are many failed attempts, there is a possibility that the system is the target of an attack. Auditing logon events mitigates this risk by recording all ...

Once an attacker establishes initial access to a system, the attacker often attempts to create a persistent method of re-establishing access. One way to accomplish this is for the attacker to create a new account or modify an existing one. Auditing of account creation and modification is one method for mitigating this risk. To address access requirements, many operating systems can be integrated w ...

When operating system accounts are removed, user accessibility is affected. The system must audit account removal actions so that administrator users can detect and respond to such events. Such a capability greatly reduces the risk that operating system accessibility will be negatively affected for extended periods of time and provides logging that can be used for forensic purposes. To address acc ...

The group of csh init files must be wheel. Use the command chown :0 /etc/csh.cshrc /etc/csh.login /etc/csh.logout to change the group owner as appropriate.

The permissions of csh init files must be 644 or as appropriate. Use the command chmod 644 /etc/csh.cshrc /etc/csh.login /etc/csh.logout to set permissions of csh init files or as appropriate.

The permissions on a file establish which users are permitted to access or modify it. An attacker may attempt to change the permissions on a file to prevent legitimate users from accessing it or to grant additional access to an account the attacker controls. Auditing successful and unsuccessful attempts to modify security objects such as file permissions mitigates this risk.

Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password complexity is one factor of several that determine how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of ...


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